Bibliography

The books, papers and other research material used for this theme are listed here.

Author Date Title Publisher + ISBN Content ref.
Ayensu, E.S.
1997
Ashanti Gold Ashanti Goldfields Co., London: 1840282754 Gold jewellery
Becker, R.
1991
Art & Ambiguity: Perspectives on the Brenthurst Collection of Southern African Art Johannesburg Art Gallery: 0874836043 Fly-whisks, nos 852,853
Bellamy, C.V.
1904
“A West African Smelting House”. J. Iron & Steel Institute, v.66 pp.99-126 Ola-Igbi Yoruba smelting and tools
Berardi, C.
2004
Standing on Ceremony: Traditional African Arms The Western Reserve Historical Society: 0911704582 Azande throwing knife, no1
Blier, S.P.
1998
Royal Arts of Africa Calmann & King, London: 1856691136 Benin altar, pp. 68-71: Yoruba edan ogboni being worn, p97; Dahomey regalia, pp.104-120
Bovill, E.W.
1968
The Golden Trade of the Moors (2nd ed.) OUP, London Trade routes across Sahara
Brown, J.
1995
Traditional metalworking in Kenya Oxbow Monograph 44: Maasai swords, p92; harvesting knives, p94,113; animal bells p101.
Cole, H.C. & Ross, D.H.
1977
The Arts of Ghana Museum of Culture History, Los Angeles: Variety of Akan gold ornaments, pp.33-38
Coote, J. & Russell, C.
1995
African Metalwork Crafts Council: 1870145526 general
Coote, J. (et al)
2000
Transformations: The Art of Recycling Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford: reuse of metals
Cutsem, A. van
2002
A World of Bracelets Skira, Milano Dance rattles p56, p76; Djerma anklet p40; Mandara Hills bracelet p81
Dark, P.J.C.
1973
An Introduction to Benin Art and technology OUP: 0198171919 Benin heads
Devine, E.
2004
“The Conservation of a Group of Metal Figures from the Cameroons” IPCRA Journal Autumn 2004 Cameroon zinc figures analysis
Ehret,C.
2002
The Civilisations of Africa James Currey, Oxford: 0852554753 General background
Ellert, H.
1984
The Material Culture of Zimbabwe Longman Zimbabwe: 0582613930 Gano axes; pp. 37-39. Batakwa knives; pp. 43-45
Eyo, E.
1979
Nigeria and the Evolution of Money Central Bank of Nigeria: 0905788060 Manillas , pp. 61 – 63
Eyo, E. & Willett, F.
1980
Treasures of Ancient Nigeria Detroit Institute of Arts Benin head, p44
Feest, C.
1980
The Art of War Thames & Hudson, London: 050006010X Dahomey recade axe, p.58
Fischer, W. & Zirngibl, M. A.
1978
African Weapons Prinz-Verlag, Passau; 3980021203 Kota bird knife; pp.185-189. Hutu harvesting knife,100.
Frank, B.E.
1998
Mande Potters & Leatherworkers Smithsonian Institution Press Fouta Djallon knife, fig56
Frobenius,L.
1932
Morphology of the African Bow Weapon Berlin Arrow forms, pp.30-35
Gardi, R
1969
African Crafts and Craftsmen Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York Silver work in Niger
Herbert, E.W.
1984
Red Gold of Africa University of Wisconsin Press: 0299096009 throughout: use and significance of copper
Jones, G. I.
1984
The Art of Eastern Nigeria Cambridge UP; 0521259274 Igbo anklets, pp.25-26
Kirk Greene, A.H.M.
1963
“Note on spears from Bornu” Man, v.63, no.220 Bornu spears, including multi-bladed, p.174
Knight, I.
1989
The Zulus Elite series, 21; Osprey, London Battle axes, p32
Knight, I.
1999
The Anatomy of the Zulu Army Greenhill Books, London: 1853673633 Zulu stabbing spear, p110
Kriger, C. M.
1999
Pride of Men: Ironworking in 19th Century West Central Africa Currey, Oxford: 0852556322 Bangala’ knife, pp.204-06. Songye axe, pp.147-49. Mangbetu knife, pp.142-44
Kyerematen, A.A.Y. 1964 Panoply of Ghana Longmans, London Goldweights, pp 46-54.
Lindblom, K.G.
1939
Wire drawing especially in Africa Stockholm Wire drawing
Lindblom,K.G.
1937
“Spears and staffs with two or more points in Africa” Smarre Meddelanden v14, Statens Etnografiska museum, Stockholm 3 pointed spear in Darfur
MacLeod, M.D.
1981
The Asante British Museum Publications Asante gold filigree work, p73
Malcolm, L.W.G.
1924
“Iron-working in the Central Cameroon” Man, Sept 1924, no.102 Bagam smelting and tools
Martin, J.
2005
Asiru Olatunde: Chasing Dreams John Martin Gallery London copper and aluminium panels
McKeating, A. & Phillipson, D.
1996
Metal in Africa Cambridge University African Studies Centre; 0902993321 Kota bird-head knife, p.19
Meek, C.K.
1931
Tribal Studies in Northern Nigeria Kegan, Paul, London Crook-shaped staff, v1, pp25-34; info on Verre, v1, ch.7.; Bata, v1,ch.2
Menzel, B.
1968
Goldgewichte aus Ghana Museum fur Volkerkunde Berlin goldweight manufacture and types
Montague, L.A.G.
1921
Weapons & Implements of Savage Races Bazaar Exchange & Mart, London Arrow forms, pp.157-163
Phillips, T. (ed.)
1995
Africa: The Art of a Continent Prestel/ Royal Academy: 3791316036 Yoruba face bell, 5.74, p414. Tiv/Jukun castings, 5.27, 5.31.
Pole, L.M.
1974
“Iron-working apparatus and techniques: Upper Region of Ghana” West African Journal of Archaeology, v5 Blacksmiths and potters, p35-7
Pole, L.M.
1985
“Furnace design and the smelting operation: A survey of written reports of Iron smelting in West Africa” in Haaland, R. & Shinnie, P. (eds.) African Iron Working – Ancient and Traditional. Norwegian University Press: 8200072924 spread of iron-working in W. Africa
Pole, L.M.
1999
Iwa L’Ewa RAMM, Exeter; 1855226936 Data on Townsend, Pinkett, Broun, Burrough colls
Quiggin, A.H.
1949
A Survey of Primitive Money Methuen, London Iron and copper based currencies in Africa
Rattray, R.S.
1927
Religion & Art in Ashanti OUP, London Goldsmithing in Kumasi
Sieber, R.
1972
African Textiles and Decorative Arts Museum of Modern Art; 0780702270 Igbo anklets, p.17: Metal jewellery, pp. 123-155
Spring, C.
1993
African Arms and Armour British Museum Press: 0714125083 Danhome recade , pp.64-67; Maasai spear pp.111-113; Zulu spears p127; Shona gano , p.135-36; Tsonga battle-axe p136.
Sundstrom, L.
1974
The Exchange Economy of Pre-Colonial Tropical Africa Hurst, London: 0903983206 Trade in iron, copper and its alloys
Sunnu, S.B.K.
1975
The Wayside Fitters Dept of Planning, UST Kumasi, Ghana: involvement of smiths in vehicle repair activity
Thomi, W.H. & Yankson, P.W.K.
1985
Small Scale Industries and Decentralization in Ghana Dept of geography, University of Ghana Legon position of blacksmiths, contribution to industry in towns
Thompson, R.F.
1976
Black Gods and Kings Indiana University Press: 0253312043 Yoruba edan ogboni , ch6; Yoruba iron objects, ch11 Birds of iron
Trowell, M. & Wachsmann, K.
1953
Tribal Crafts of Uganda Oxford Harvesting knives
Vaughan, J.H.
1973
“Nkyagu as artists in Marghi society” in d’Azevedo The Traditional Artist in African Societies styles of knives in N. Cameroon
Verswijver,G. et al (eds.)
1995
Treasures from the Africa-Museum, Tervuren Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren: Kongo bracelet, no26, Mangbetu knives no232
Zirngibl, M.
1997
“African status weapons” in Schaedler, Earth & Ore : Panterra Verlag: 3932353145 swords, throwing knives